||Carleton E. Watkins (there is some confusion about his middle name) was one of the most important photographers of the 19th century. He learned photography after moving from New York state to California soon after the Gold Rush of 1849, and set up a series of studios in San Francisco. He specialized in large-format wilderness landscapes and panoramic urban shots, and was instrumental in the advancement of photographic technologies. Despite the many awards he won, his popularity, and a brief period of financial stability from 1871-1873, he was plagued by financial difficulties for most of his life. After losing his life's work during the Great Earthquake and Fire of 1906, he was committed to an insane asylum, dying penniless in 1916.